Anatomy of an Attack: The Five Ps
Source: O'Reilly Network - Posted by Pax Dickinson   
Intrusion Detection In a meeting with an engineer (Jonathan Hogue) from a security company called Okena (recently acquired by Cisco), I was introduced to the concept of the five Ps. Hogue graciously gave me the presentation slide and I use it all the time. There are a lot of models of how an attack progresses, but this is the best I've seen. These five steps follow an attack's progression whether the attack is sourced from a person or an automated worm or script. We will concentrate on the Probe and Penetrate phases here, since these are the stages that Snort monitors. Hopefully, the attacker won't get past these phases without being noticed. The five Ps are Probe, Penetrate, Persist, Propagate, and Paralyze.

Probe

In this phase, the attacker gathers information on a potential target. In a targeted attack, the scanning may be limited to your allocated range of IP addresses. In an untargeted attack (see Section 4.1.1, above), it might be against a wide range of addresses. Often, the initial activities of this information-gathering will not send a single packet to your network. A surprising amount of information can be gathered from information stores on the Internet. The goal of this phase is to map out your network and determine details about the systems on your network, permitting the attacker to tailor an attack to exploit known vulnerabilities in the software version running on your system, or perhaps to a configuration error.

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