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Stronger firewall rulesets to run after initial testing

6.4. Stronger firewall rulesets to run after initial testing

6.4.1. Stronger IP Firewall (IPTABLES) rulesets

<rc.firewall-iptables-stronger START>

#!/bin/sh
#
# rc.firewall-iptables-stronger
#
FWVER=0.88s

#          An example of a stronger IPTABLES firewall with IP Masquerade 
#          support for 2.4.x kernels.  
#
# Log:
#
#   0.88s - Updated the commands for dynamically addresses machines and
#           to point to an expanded FAQ section for more information
#
#   0.87s - Removed the unused drop-and-logit chain as it was only later
#           being deleted anyway
#   0.86s - Fixed a typo that had a preceeding ; instead of a #
#   0.85s - renamed from rc.firewall-2.4-stronger to rc.firewall-iptables-
#           stronger to reflect this script works for all IPTABLES enabled
#           platforms including 2.6.x kernels
#         - fixed an incorrect /24 netmask for the INTIP variable
#         - removed the unneeded SED variable
#   0.84s - Changed the defaults from 192.168.1.0 to 192.168.0.x to align
#           with the rest of the IPMASQ howto
#   0.83s - Added additional comments to make PORTFW configs more obvious
#   0.82s - Added a special ICMP filter to work around a Netfilter security
#           issue
#         - renamed the drop-and-log-it rule to reject-and-log-it
#   0.81s - Added an additional comment in the INPUT section for NOT 
#           allowing all traffic in, but only select traffic
#   0.80s - Added a DISABLED ip_nat_irc kernel module section, changed the
#           default of the ip_conntrack_irc to NOT load by default, and 
#           added additional kernel module comments
#   0.79s - ruleset now uses modprobe instead of insmod
#   0.78s - REJECT is not a legal policy yet; back to DROP
#   0.77s - Changed the default block behavior to REJECT not DROP
#   0.76s - Added a comment about the OPTIONAL WWW ruleset and a comment
#           where to put optional PORTFW commands
#   0.75s - Added clarification that PPPoE users need to use
#           "ppp0" instead of "eth0" for their external interface
#   0.74s - Changed the EXTIP command to work on NON-English distros
#   0.73s - Added comments in the output section that DHCPd is optional
#           and changed the default settings to disabled
#   0.72s - Changed the filter from the INTNET to the INTIP to be
#           stateful; moved the command VARs to the top and made the
#           rest of the script to use them
#   0.70s - Added a disabled examples for allowing internal DHCP  
#           and external WWW access to the server
#   0.63s - Added support for the IRC module
#   0.62s - Initial version based upon the basic 2.4.x rc.firewall


echo -e "\nLoading rc.firewall-iptables-STRONGER - version $FWVER..\n"


# The location of various iptables and other shell programs
#
#   If your Linux distribution came with a copy of iptables, most
#   likely it is located in /sbin.  If you manually compiled 
#   iptables, the default location is in /usr/local/sbin
#
# ** Please use the "whereis iptables" command to figure out 
# ** where your copy is and change the path below to reflect 
# ** your setup
#
#IPTABLES=/sbin/iptables
IPTABLES=/usr/local/sbin/iptables
#
LSMOD=/sbin/lsmod
DEPMOD=/sbin/depmod
MODPROBE=/sbin/modprobe
GREP=/bin/grep
AWK=/bin/awk
IFCONFIG=/sbin/ifconfig


#Setting the EXTERNAL and INTERNAL interfaces for the network
#
#  Each IP Masquerade network needs to have at least one
#  external and one internal network.  The external network
#  is where the natting will occur and the internal network
#  should preferably be addressed with a RFC1918 private address
#  scheme.
#
#  For this example, "eth0" is external and "eth1" is internal"
#
#  NOTE:  If this doesnt EXACTLY fit your configuration, you must 
#         change the EXTIF or INTIF variables above. For example: 
#
#            If you are a PPPoE or analog modem user:
#
#               EXTIF="ppp0" 
#
EXTIF="eth0"
INTIF="eth1"
echo "  External Interface:  $EXTIF"
echo "  Internal Interface:  $INTIF"
echo "  ---"

# Specify your Static IP address here or let the script take care of it 
# for you.
#
#   If you prefer to use STATIC addresses in your firewalls, un-# out the
#   static example below and # out the dynamic line.  If you don't care,
#   just leave this section alone.
#
#   If you have a DYNAMIC IP address, the ruleset already takes care of
#   this for you.  Please note that the different single and double quote 
#   characters and the script MATTER.
#
#
#   PPP and DHCP (Cablemodem and DSL ) users:
#   -----------------------------------------
#   PPP: If you get your TCP/IP address via DHCP, **you will need ** to 
#   enable the #   #ed out command below underneath the PPP section AND 
#   replace the word "eth0" with the name of your EXTERNAL Internet 
#   connection (ppp0, ippp0, etc) on the lines for "ppp-ip" and "extip".  
#
#   DHCP and PPP users:  The remote DHCP or PPP server can and will change 
#   IP addresses on you over time.  To deal with this, users should configure 
#   their DHCP or PPP client to re-run the rc.firewall-* ruleset everytime 
#   the IP address is changed.  Please see the "masq-and-dyn-addr" FAQ entry 
#   in the IPMASQ howto for full details on how to do this.
#
#
# Determine the external IP automatically:
# ----------------------------------------
#
#  The following line will determine your external IP address.  This
#  line is somewhat complex and confusing but it will also work for
#  all NON-English Linux distributions:
#
EXTIP="`$IFCONFIG $EXTIF | $AWK \
 /$EXTIF/'{next}//{split($0,a,":");split(a[2],a," ");print a[1];exit}'`"


# For users who wish to use STATIC IP addresses:
#
#  # out the EXTIP line above and un-# out the EXTIP line below
#
#EXTIP="your.static.PPP.address"
echo "  External IP: $EXTIP"
echo "  ---"


# Assign the internal TCP/IP network and IP address
INTNET="192.168.0.0/24"
INTIP="192.168.0.1/32"
echo "  Internal Network: $INTNET"
echo "  Internal IP:      $INTIP"
echo "  ---"




# Setting a few other local variables
#
UNIVERSE="0.0.0.0/0"

#======================================================================
#== No editing beyond this line is required for initial MASQ testing ==

# Need to verify that all modules have all required dependencies
#
echo "  - Verifying that all kernel modules are ok"
$DEPMOD -a

echo -en "    Loading kernel modules: "

# With the new IPTABLES code, the core MASQ functionality is now either
# modular or compiled into the kernel.  This HOWTO shows ALL IPTABLES
# options as MODULES.  If your kernel is compiled correctly, there is
# NO need to load the kernel modules manually.  
#
#  NOTE: The following items are listed ONLY for informational reasons.
#        There is no reason to manual load these modules unless your
#        kernel is either mis-configured or you intentionally disabled
#        the kernel module autoloader.
#

# Upon the commands of starting up IP Masq on the server, the
# following kernel modules will be automatically loaded:
#
# NOTE:  Only load the IP MASQ modules you need.  All current IP MASQ 
#        modules are shown below but are commented out from loading.
# ===============================================================

#Load the main body of the IPTABLES module - "ip_tables"
#  - Loaded automatically when the "iptables" command is invoked
#
#  - Loaded manually to clean up kernel auto-loading timing issues
#
echo -en "ip_tables, "
#
#Verify the module isn't loaded.  If it is, skip it
#
if [ -z "` $LSMOD | $GREP ip_tables | $AWK {'print $1'} `" ]; then
   $MODPROBE ip_tables
fi


#Load the IPTABLES filtering module - "iptable_filter" 
#
#  - Loaded automatically when filter policies are activated


#Load the stateful connection tracking framework - "ip_conntrack"
#
# The conntrack  module in itself does nothing without other specific 
# conntrack modules being loaded afterwards such as the "ip_conntrack_ftp"
# module
#
#  - This module is loaded automatically when MASQ functionality is 
#    enabled 
#
#  - Loaded manually to clean up kernel auto-loading timing issues
#
echo -en "ip_conntrack, "
#
#Verify the module isn't loaded.  If it is, skip it
#
if [ -z "` $LSMOD | $GREP ip_conntrack | $AWK {'print $1'} `" ]; then
   $MODPROBE ip_conntrack
fi


#Load the FTP tracking mechanism for full FTP tracking
#
# Enabled by default -- insert a "#" on the next line to deactivate
#
echo -e "ip_conntrack_ftp, "
#
#Verify the module isn't loaded.  If it is, skip it
#
if [ -z "` $LSMOD | $GREP ip_conntrack_ftp | $AWK {'print $1'} `" ]; then
   $MODPROBE ip_conntrack_ftp
fi


#Load the IRC tracking mechanism for full IRC tracking
#
# Disabled by default -- insert a "#" on the next few lines to activate
#
# echo -en "                             ip_conntrack_irc, "
#
#Verify the module isn't loaded.  If it is, skip it
#
# if [ -z "` $LSMOD | $GREP ip_conntrack_irc | $AWK {'print $1'} `" ]; then
#    $MODPROBE ip_conntrack_irc
# fi


#Load the general IPTABLES NAT code - "iptable_nat"
#  - Loaded automatically when MASQ functionality is turned on
# 
#  - Loaded manually to clean up kernel auto-loading timing issues
#
echo -en "iptable_nat, "
#
#Verify the module isn't loaded.  If it is, skip it
#
if [ -z "` $LSMOD | $GREP iptable_nat | $AWK {'print $1'} `" ]; then
   $MODPROBE iptable_nat
fi


#Loads the FTP NAT functionality into the core IPTABLES code
# Required to support non-PASV FTP.
#
# Enabled by default -- insert a "#" on the next line to deactivate
#
echo -e "ip_nat_ftp"
#
#Verify the module isn't loaded.  If it is, skip it
#
if [ -z "` $LSMOD | $GREP ip_nat_ftp | $AWK {'print $1'} `" ]; then
   $MODPROBE ip_nat_ftp
fi


#Loads the IRC NAT functionality (for DCC) into the core IPTABLES code
#
# DISABLED by default -- delete the "#" on the next few lines to activate
#
# echo -e "ip_nat_irc"
#
#Verify the module isn't loaded.  If it is, skip it
#
# if [ -z "` $LSMOD | $GREP ip_nat_irc | $AWK {'print $1'} `" ]; then
#    $MODPROBE ip_nat_irc
# fi


echo "  ---"

# Just to be complete, here is a partial list of some of the other  
# IPTABLES kernel modules and their function.  Please note that most 
# of these modules (the ipt ones) are automatically loaded by the 
# master kernel module for proper operation and don't need to be 
# manually loaded.
# --------------------------------------------------------------------
#
#    ip_nat_snmp_basic - this module allows for proper NATing of some 
#                        SNMP traffic
#
#    iptable_mangle    - this target allows for packets to be 
#                        manipulated for things like the TCPMSS 
#                        option, etc.
#
# --
#
#    ipt_mark       - this target marks a given packet for future action.
#                     This automatically loads the ipt_MARK module
#
#    ipt_tcpmss     - this target allows to manipulate the TCP MSS
#                     option for braindead remote firewalls.
#                     This automatically loads the ipt_TCPMSS module
#
#    ipt_limit      - this target allows for packets to be limited to
#                     to many hits per sec/min/hr
#
#    ipt_multiport  - this match allows for targets within a range
#                     of port numbers vs. listing each port individually
#
#    ipt_state      - this match allows to catch packets with various
#                     IP and TCP flags set/unset
#
#    ipt_unclean    - this match allows to catch packets that have invalid
#                     IP/TCP flags set
#
#    iptable_filter - this module allows for packets to be DROPped, 
#                     REJECTed, or LOGged.  This module automatically 
#                     loads the following modules:
#
#                     ipt_LOG - this target allows for packets to be 
#                               logged
#
#                     ipt_REJECT - this target DROPs the packet and returns 
#                                  a configurable ICMP packet back to the 
#                                  sender.


#CRITICAL:  Enable IP forwarding since it is disabled by default since
#
#           Redhat Users:  you may try changing the options in
#                          /etc/sysconfig/network from:
#
#                       FORWARD_IPV4=false
#                             to
#                       FORWARD_IPV4=true
#
echo "  Enabling forwarding.."
echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward


# Dynamic IP users:
#
#   If you get your IP address dynamically from SLIP, PPP, or DHCP, 
#   enable the following option.  This enables dynamic-address hacking
#   which makes the life with Diald and similar programs much easier.
#
echo "  Enabling DynamicAddr.."
echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_dynaddr

echo "  ---"

#############################################################################
#
# Enable Stronger IP forwarding and Masquerading
#
#  NOTE:  In IPTABLES speak, IP Masquerading is a form of SourceNAT or SNAT.
#
#  NOTE #2:  The following is an example for an internal LAN address in the
#            192.168.0.x network with a 255.255.255.0 or a "24" bit subnet 
#            mask connecting to the Internet on external interface "eth0".  
#            This example will MASQ internal traffic out to the Internet 
#            but not allow non-initiated traffic into your internal network.
#
#            
#         ** Please change the above network numbers, subnet mask, and your 
#         

#Clearing any previous configuration
#
#  Unless specified, the defaults for INPUT, OUTPUT, and FORWARD to DROP
#
#    You CANNOT change this to REJECT as it isn't a vaild policy setting.
#    If you want REJECT, you must explictly REJECT at the end of a giving 
#    INPUT, OUTPUT, or FORWARD chain
#
echo "  Clearing any existing rules and setting default policy to DROP.."
$IPTABLES -P INPUT DROP
$IPTABLES -F INPUT 
$IPTABLES -P OUTPUT DROP
$IPTABLES -F OUTPUT 
$IPTABLES -P FORWARD DROP
$IPTABLES -F FORWARD 
$IPTABLES -F -t nat

#Not needed and it will only load the unneeded kernel module
#
#$IPTABLES -F -t mangle


# Delete all User-specified chains
$IPTABLES -X


# Reset all IPTABLES counters
$IPTABLES -Z


#Configuring specific CHAINS for later use in the ruleset
#
#  NOTE:  Some users prefer to have their firewall silently
#         "DROP" packets while others prefer to use "REJECT"
#         to send ICMP error messages back to the remote 
#         machine.  The default is "REJECT" but feel free to
#         change this below.
#
# NOTE: Without the --log-level set to "info", every single
#       firewall hit will goto ALL vtys.  This is a very big
#       pain.
#
echo "  Creating a DROP chain.."
$IPTABLES -N reject-and-log-it
$IPTABLES -A reject-and-log-it -j LOG --log-level info 
$IPTABLES -A reject-and-log-it -j REJECT

echo -e "\n   - Loading INPUT rulesets"


#######################################################################
# INPUT: Incoming traffic from various interfaces.  All rulesets are 
#        already flushed and set to a default policy of DROP. 
#

# loopback interfaces are valid.
#
$IPTABLES -A INPUT -i lo -s $UNIVERSE -d $UNIVERSE -j ACCEPT


# local interface, local machines, going anywhere is valid
#
$IPTABLES -A INPUT -i $INTIF -s $INTNET -d $UNIVERSE -j ACCEPT


# remote interface, claiming to be local machines, IP spoofing, get lost
#
$IPTABLES -A INPUT -i $EXTIF -s $INTNET -d $UNIVERSE -j reject-and-log-it


# external interface, from any source, for ICMP traffic is valid
#
#  If you would like your machine to "ping" from the Internet, 
#  enable this next line
#
#$IPTABLES -A INPUT -i $EXTIF -p ICMP -s $UNIVERSE -d $EXTIP -j ACCEPT


# remote interface, any source, going to the MASQ servers IP address is valid
#
#  ENABLE this line if you want ALL Internet traffic to connect to your
#  the various servers running on the MASQ server.  This includes 
#  web servers, ssh servers, dns servers, etc.  
#
#  I DON'T recommend you enable this rule.  Instead, only enable specific
#  access to select server ports under the "OPTIONAL INPUT Section".
#  An example of enabling HTTP (WWW) has been given below:
#
#
#$IPTABLES -A INPUT -i $EXTIF -s $UNIVERSE -d $EXTIP -j ACCEPT


# Allow any related traffic coming back to the MASQ server in.
#
#  STATEFULLY TRACKED
#
$IPTABLES -A INPUT -i $EXTIF -s $UNIVERSE -d $EXTIP -m state --state \
 ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT


# ----- Begin OPTIONAL INPUT Section -----
#

# DHCPd - Enable the following lines if you run an INTERNAL DHCPd server
#
#$IPTABLES -A INPUT -i $INTIF -p tcp --sport 68 --dport 67 -j ACCEPT
#$IPTABLES -A INPUT -i $INTIF -p udp --sport 68 --dport 67 -j ACCEPT

# HTTPd - Enable the following lines if you run an EXTERNAL WWW server
#
#    NOTE:  This is NOT needed for simply enabling PORTFW.  This is ONLY 
#           for users that plan on running Apache on the MASQ server itself
#
#echo -e "      - Allowing EXTERNAL access to the WWW server"
#$IPTABLES -A INPUT -i $EXTIF -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED,RELATED \
# -p tcp -s $UNIVERSE -d $EXTIP --dport 80 -j ACCEPT

#
# ----- End OPTIONAL INPUT Section -----


# Catch all rule, all other incoming is denied and logged. 
#
$IPTABLES -A INPUT -s $UNIVERSE -d $UNIVERSE -j reject-and-log-it


# ---------------------------------------------------------------------

echo -e "   - Loading OUTPUT rulesets"

#######################################################################
# OUTPUT: Outgoing traffic from various interfaces.  All rulesets are 
#         already flushed and set to a default policy of DROP. 
#

# Workaround bug in netfilter
# See http://www.netfilter.org/security/2002-04-02-icmp-dnat.html
#
$IPTABLES -A OUTPUT -m state -p icmp --state INVALID -j DROP

# loopback interface is valid.
#
$IPTABLES -A OUTPUT -o lo -s $UNIVERSE -d $UNIVERSE -j ACCEPT


# local interfaces, any source going to local net is valid
#
$IPTABLES -A OUTPUT -o $INTIF -s $EXTIP -d $INTNET -j ACCEPT


# local interface, MASQ server source going to the local net is valid
#
$IPTABLES -A OUTPUT -o $INTIF -s $INTIP -d $INTNET -j ACCEPT


# outgoing to local net on remote interface, stuffed routing, deny
#
$IPTABLES -A OUTPUT -o $EXTIF -s $UNIVERSE -d $INTNET -j reject-and-log-it


# anything else outgoing on remote interface is valid
#
$IPTABLES -A OUTPUT -o $EXTIF -s $EXTIP -d $UNIVERSE -j ACCEPT


# ----- Begin OPTIONAL OUTPUT Section -----
#

# DHCPd - Enable the following lines if you run an INTERNAL DHCPd server
#         - Remove BOTH #s all the #s if you need this functionality.
#
#$IPTABLES -A OUTPUT -o $INTIF -p tcp -s $INTIP --sport 67 \
# -d 255.255.255.255 --dport 68 -j ACCEPT
#$IPTABLES -A OUTPUT -o $INTIF -p udp -s $INTIP --sport 67 \
# -d 255.255.255.255 --dport 68 -j ACCEPT

#
# ----- End OPTIONAL OUTPUT Section -----


# Catch all rule, all other outgoing is denied and logged. 
#
$IPTABLES -A OUTPUT -s $UNIVERSE -d $UNIVERSE -j reject-and-log-it


echo -e "   - Loading FORWARD rulesets"

#######################################################################
# FORWARD: Enable Forwarding and thus IPMASQ
#

# ----- Begin OPTIONAL FORWARD Section -----
#
#  Put PORTFW commands here
#
# ----- End OPTIONAL FORWARD Section -----


echo "     - FWD: Allow all connections OUT and only existing/related IN"
$IPTABLES -A FORWARD -i $EXTIF -o $INTIF -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED \
 -j ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -A FORWARD -i $INTIF -o $EXTIF -j ACCEPT

# Catch all rule, all other forwarding is denied and logged. 
#
$IPTABLES -A FORWARD -j reject-and-log-it


echo "     - NAT: Enabling SNAT (MASQUERADE) functionality on $EXTIF"
#
#More liberal form
#$IPTABLES -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o $EXTIF -j MASQUERADE
#
#Stricter form
$IPTABLES -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o $EXTIF -j SNAT --to $EXTIP


#######################################################################
echo -e "\nrc.firewall-iptables-stronger $FWVER done.\n"
<rc.firewall-iptables-stronger STOP>

To automatically start this stronger firewall ruleset at the proper time, please see the end of the Section 3.4.2 section for full details. Please make sure you make the correct "rc.firewall-iptables" to "rc.firewall-iptables-stronger" substitutions!!

6.4.2. Stronger IP Firewall (IPCHAINS) rulesets

This section provides a more in-depth guide to using the 2.2.x firewall tool, IPCHAINS. See above sections for IPFWADM rulesets.

This example is for a firewall/masquerade system behind a PPP link with a static PPP address (dynamic PPP instructions are included but disabled). The trusted interface is 192.168.0.1 and the PPP interface IP address has been changed to protect the guilty :-). I have listed each incoming and outgoing interface individually to catch IP spoofing as well as stuffed routing and/or masquerading. A nything not explicitly allowed is FORBIDDEN (well.. rejected actually). If your IP MASQ box breaks after implementing this rc.firewall-ipchains-stronger script, be sure that you edit it for your configuration and check your /var/log/messages or /var/adm/messages SYSLOG file for any firewall errors.

For more comprehensive examples of a strong IP Masqueraded IPFWADM rulesets for PPP, Cablemodem users, etc., please see TrinityOS - Section 10 and GreatCircle's Firewall WWW page

NOTE #1: --- UPDATE YOUR KERNEL --- Linux 2.2.x kernels less than version 2.2.20 contain several different security vulnerabilities (some were MASQ specific). Kernels less than 2.2.20 have a few local vulnerabilities. Kernel versions less than 2.2.16 have a TCP root exploit vulnerability and versions less than 2.2.11 have a IPCHAINS fragmentation bug. Because of these issues, users running a firewall with strong IPCHAINS rulesets are open to possible instrusion. Please upgrade your kernel to a fixed version.

NOTE #2: If you get a dynamically assigned TCP/IP address from your ISP (PPP, DSL, Cablemodems, etc.), you CANNOT load this strong ruleset upon booting. You will either need to reload this firewall ruleset EVERY TIME you get a new IP address or make your /etc/rc.d/rc.firewall-ipchains-stronger ruleset more intelligent. To do this for various types of connections such as PPP or DHCP users, please see the Section 7.8 FAQ entry for all the details.

Please also be aware that there are several GUI Firewall creation tools available as well. Please see Chapter 7for full details.

Lastly, if you are using a STATIC PPP IP address, change the "EXTIF="your.static.PPP.address"" line to reflect your address.

----------------------------------------------------------------

<rc.firewall-ipchains-stronger START>

#!/bin/sh
#
# /etc/rc.d/rc.firewall-ipchains-stronger: An example of a Stronger IPCHAINS 
#                                          firewall ruleset for 2.2 kernels
#
FWVER=0.75s
#
# Log:
#  0.75s - Updated the commands for dynamically addresses machines and
#           to point to an expanded FAQ section for more information
#
#  0.74s - renamed from rc.firewall-2.2-stronger to
#          rc.firewall-ipchains-stronger to better reflect that this ruleset can 
#          can run on different major kernel versions
#        - removed unused SED variable
#  0.73s - Added additional comments to make PORTFW configs more obvious
#  0.72s - #ed out the rule that would allow all traffic destined for the
#          MASQ server itself to be accepted.  Use the OPTIONAL INPUT 
#          section to only allow explicit services.
#        - Fixed an INTLAN rule that was allowing traffic from ANY IP address
#          instead of the proper INTIP IP address only.  This aligns the 
#          IPCHAINS ruleset with the IPTABLES and IPFWADM ruleset examples
#  0.71s - ruleset now uses modprobe instead of insmod
#  0.70s - Added missing execution variables
#        - fixed a missing -p tcp for the commented HTTPd section
#  0.65s - Added comments HTTPd rules to the INPUT and OUTPUT section
#        - Added a comment where to insert IPPORTFW commands
#  0.60s - Changed the EXTIP command to work on NON-English distros
#        - Updated the CASE of some of the script variables
#

echo -e "\nLoading rc.firewall-ipchains-stronger : version $FWVER..\n"


# The location of various iptables and other shell programs
#
#   If your Linux distribution came with a copy of iptables, most
#   likely it is located in /sbin.  If you manually compiled 
#   iptables, the default location is in /usr/local/sbin
#
# ** Please use the "whereis iptables" command to figure out 
# ** where your copy is and change the path below to reflect 
# ** your setup
#
IPCHAINS=/sbin/ipchains
LSMOD=/sbin/lsmod
DEPMOD=/sbin/depmod
MODPROBE=/sbin/modprobe
GREP=/bin/grep
AWK=/bin/awk
IFCONFIG=/sbin/ifconfig

PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin


# Global variables
# ----------------

# ALL PPP and DHCP users must set this for the correct EXTERNAL and
#  INTERNAL interfaces names.  Examples:  eth0, ppp0, ippp0, etc.
#  See more info about this below.
#
EXTIF="ppp0"
INTIF="eth0"

# The INTERNAL IP address
#
INTIP="192.168.0.1/32"
INTNET="192.168.0.0/24"
echo "  Internal IP:      $INTIP"
echo "  Internal Network: $INTNET"



# Load all required IP MASQ modules
#
#   NOTE:  Only load the IP MASQ modules you need.  All current IP MASQ modules
#          are shown below but are commented from loading.

# Needed to initially load modules
#
$DEPMOD -a

# Supports the proper masquerading of FTP file transfers using the PORT method
#
$MODPROBE ip_masq_ftp

# Supports the masquerading of RealAudio over UDP.  Without this module,
#       RealAudio WILL function but in TCP mode.  This can cause a reduction
#       in sound quality
#
$MODPROBE ip_masq_raudio

# Supports the masquerading of IRC DCC file transfers
#
#$MODPROBE ip_masq_irc


# Supports the masquerading of Quake and QuakeWorld by default.  These modules are
#   for multiple users behind the Linux MASQ server.  If you are going to 
#   play Quake I, II, and III, use the second example.
#
#   NOTE:  If you get ERRORs loading the QUAKE module, you are running an old
#   -----  kernel that has bugs in it.  Please upgrade to the newest kernel.
#
#Quake I / QuakeWorld (ports 26000 and 27000)
#$MODPROBE ip_masq_quake
#
#Quake I/II/III / QuakeWorld (ports 26000, 27000, 27910, 27960)
#$MODPROBE ip_masq_quake 26000,27000,27910,27960


# Supports the masquerading of the CuSeeme video conferencing software
#
#$MODPROBE ip_masq_cuseeme

#Supports the masquerading of the VDO-live video conferencing software
#
#$MODPROBE ip_masq_vdolive


#CRITICAL:  Enable IP forwarding since it is disabled by default
#
#           Redhat Users:  you may try changing the options in 
#                          /etc/sysconfig/network from:
#
#                       FORWARD_IPV4=false
#                             to
#                       FORWARD_IPV4=true
#
echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward


#CRITICAL:  Enable automatic IP defragmentation since it is disabled by default 
#           in 2.2.x kernels 
#
#           This used as a compile-time option but the behavior was changed 
#           in 2.2.12.  It should also be noted that some distributions have
#           removed this option from the /proc table.  If this entry isn't
#           present in your /proc, don't worry about it.
#
echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_always_defrag


# Dynamic IP users:
#
#   If you get your IP address dynamically from SLIP, PPP, or DHCP, enable this 
#   following option.  This enables dynamic-ip address hacking in IP MASQ, 
#   making life with Diald and similar programs much easier.
#
#echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_dynaddr


# Enable the LooseUDP patch which some Internet-based games require
#
#  If you are trying to get an Internet game to work through your IP MASQ box,
#  and you configured it to the best of your ability without it working, try
#  enabling this option (delete the "#" character).  This option is disabled
#  by default due to possible internal machine UDP port scanning
#  vulnerabilities.
#
#echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_masq_udp_dloose


# Specify your Static IP address here.
#
#   If you have a DYNAMIC IP address, you need to make this ruleset recognize 
#   your IP address everytime you get a new IP.  To do this, enable the 
#   following one-line script.  (Please note that the different single and 
#   double quote characters MATTER).
#
#
#   DHCP users (Cablemodem and DSL ) users:
#   ---------------------------------------
#   If you get your TCP/IP address via DHCP, **you will need ** to enable the 
#   #ed out command below underneath the PPP section AND replace the word 
#   "ppp0" with the name of your EXTERNAL Internet connection (eth0, eth1, etc) 
#   on the lines for "ppp-ip" and "EXTIP".  
#
#   DHCP and PPP users:  The remote DHCP or PPP server can and will change
#   IP addresses on you over time.  To deal with this, users should configure
#   their DHCP or PPP client to re-run the rc.firewall-* ruleset everytime
#   the IP address is changed.  Please see the "masq-and-dyn-addr" FAQ entry
#   in the IPMASQ howto for full details on how to do this.
#
#
# Determine the external IP automatically:
# ----------------------------------------
#
#  The following line will determine your external IP address.  This
#  line is somewhat complex and confusing but it will also work for
#  all NON-English Linux distributions.
#
#   Make sure the EXTIF variable above is set to reflect the name
#   of your Internet connection
#
EXTIP="`$IFCONFIG $EXTIF | $AWK \
 /$EXTIF/'{next}//{split($0,a,":");split(a[2],a," ");print a[1];exit}'`"



# MASQ timeouts
#
#   2 hrs timeout for TCP session timeouts
#  10 sec timeout for traffic after the TCP/IP "FIN" packet is received
#  60 sec timeout for UDP traffic (MASQ'ed ICQ users must enable a 30sec 
#     firewall timeout in ICQ itself)
#
$IPCHAINS -M -S 7200 10 60

#############################################################################
# Incoming, flush and set default policy of reject. Actually the default policy
# is irrelevant because there is a catch all rule with deny and log.
#
$IPCHAINS -F input
$IPCHAINS -P input REJECT

# local interface, local machines, going anywhere is valid
#
$IPCHAINS -A input -i $INTIF -s $INTNET -d 0.0.0.0/0 -j ACCEPT

# remote interface, claiming to be local machines, IP spoofing, get lost
#
$IPCHAINS -A input -i $EXTIF -s $INTNET -d 0.0.0.0/0 -l -j REJECT


# remote interface, any source, going to the MASQ servers IP address is valid
#
#  ENABLE this line if you want ALL Internet traffic to connect to your
#  the various servers running on the MASQ server.  This includes 
#  web servers, ssh servers, dns servers, etc.  
#
#  I DON'T recommend you enable this rule.  Instead, only enable specific
#  access to select server ports under the "OPTIONAL INPUT Section".
#  An example of enabling HTTP (WWW) has been given below:
#
#
#$IPCHAINS -A input -i $EXTIF -s 0.0.0.0/0 -d $EXTIP/32 -j ACCEPT


# loopback interface is valid.
#
$IPCHAINS -A input -i lo -s 0.0.0.0/0 -d 0.0.0.0/0 -j ACCEPT


# ----- Begin OPTIONAL INPUT Section -----
#

# HTTPd - Enable the following lines if you either run a WWW server on
#         the IPMASQ server -OR- plan on PORTFW'ing HTTP traffic to
#         an internal WWW server
#
#$IPCHAINS -A input -i $EXTIF -p tcp -s 0.0.0.0/0 -d $EXTIP 80 -j ACCEPT

#
# ----- End OPTIONAL INPUT Section -----


# catch all rule, all other incoming is denied and logged. pity there is no
# log option on the policy but this does the job instead.
#
$IPCHAINS -A input -s 0.0.0.0/0 -d 0.0.0.0/0 -l -j REJECT

#############################################################################
# Outgoing, flush and set default policy of reject. Actually the default policy
# is irrelevant because there is a catch all rule with deny and log.
#
$IPCHAINS -F output
$IPCHAINS -P output REJECT

# local interface, MASQ server source going to the local net is valid
#
$IPCHAINS -A output -i $INTIF -s $INTIP -d $INTNET -j ACCEPT

# outgoing to local net on remote interface, stuffed routing, deny
#
$IPCHAINS -A output -i $EXTIF -s 0.0.0.0/0 -d $INTNET -l -j REJECT

# outgoing from local net on remote interface, stuffed masquerading, deny
#
$IPCHAINS -A output -i $EXTIF -s $INTNET -d 0.0.0.0/0 -l -j REJECT

# anything else outgoing on remote interface is valid
#
$IPCHAINS -A output -i $EXTIF -s $EXTIP/32 -d 0.0.0.0/0 -j ACCEPT

# loopback interface is valid.
#
$IPCHAINS -A output -i lo -s 0.0.0.0/0 -d 0.0.0.0/0 -j ACCEPT


# ----- Begin OPTIONAL OUTPUT Section -----
#

# HTTPd - Enable the following lines if you either run a WWW server on
#         the IPMASQ server -OR- plan on PORTFW'ing HTTP traffic to
#         an internal WWW server
#
#$IPCHAINS -A output -i $EXTIF -p tcp -s $EXTIP 80 -d 0.0.0.0/0 -j ACCEPT

#
# ----- End OPTIONAL OUTPUT Section -----

# catch all rule, all other outgoing is denied and logged. pity there is no
# log option on the policy but this does the job instead.
#
$IPCHAINS -A output -s 0.0.0.0/0 -d 0.0.0.0/0 -l -j REJECT

#############################################################################
# Forwarding, flush and set default policy of deny. Actually the default policy
# is irrelevant because there is a catch all rule with deny and log.
#
$IPCHAINS -F forward
$IPCHAINS -P forward DENY


# ----- Begin OPTIONAL FORWARD Section -----
#
#   Put PORTFW commands here
#
# ----- End OPTIONAL FORWARD Section -----


# Masquerade from local net on local interface to anywhere.
#
$IPCHAINS -A forward -i $EXTIF -s $INTNET -d 0.0.0.0/0 -j MASQ
#
# catch all rule, all other forwarding is denied and logged. pity there is no
# log option on the policy but this does the job instead.
#
$IPCHAINS -A forward -s 0.0.0.0/0 -d 0.0.0.0/0 -l -j REJECT

#End of file.
<rc.firewall-ipchains-stronger STOP>

To automatically start this stronger firewall ruleset at the proper time, please see the end of the Section 3.4.2 section for full details. Please make sure you make the correct "rc.firewall-ipchains" to "rc.firewall-ipchains-stronger" substitutions!!

With IPCHAINS, you can block traffic to a particular site using the "input", "output", and/or "forward" rules. Remember that the set of rules are scanned from top to bottom and "-A" tells IPCHIANS to "append" this new rule to the existing set of rules. So with this in mind, any specific restrictions need to come before any global rules. For example:

Using "input" rules:

Probably the fastest and most efficient method to block traffic, but this method only stops the MASQed machines and NOT the firewall machine itself. Of course, you might want to allow that combination.

Anyway, to block 204.50.10.13:

In the /etc/rc.d/rc.firewall-ipchains-stronger ruleset:
... start of "input" rules ...

# reject and log local interface, local machines going to 204.50.10.13
#
ipchains -A input -s 192.168.0.0/24 -d 204.50.10.13/32 -l -j REJECT


# local interface, local machines, going anywhere is valid
#
ipchains -A input -s 192.168.0.0/24 -d 0.0.0.0/0 -l -j ACCEPT


... end of "input" rules ...

Using "output" rules:

This is the slower method to block traffic because the packets must go through masquerading before they are dropped. Yet, this rule even stops the firewall machine from accessing the forbidden site.

... start of "output" rules ... # reject and log outgoing to 204.50.10.13 # ipchains -A output -s $ppp_ip/32 -d 204.50.10.13/32 -l -j REJECT # anything else outgoing on remote interface is valid # ipchains -A output -s $ppp_ip/32 -d 0.0.0.0/0 -l -j ACCEPT ... end of "output" rules ...

Using "forward" rules:

Probably slower than "input" rules for blocking traffic, this only stops masqueraded machines (e.g. internal machines). The firewall machine can still reach forbidden site(s).

... start of "forward" rules ... # Reject and log from local net on PPP interface to 204.50.10.13. # ipchains -A forward -i ppp0 -s 192.168.0.0/24 -d 204.50.10.13/32 -l -j REJECT # Masquerade from local net on local interface to anywhere. # ipchains -A forward -i ppp0 -s 192.168.0.0/24 -d 0.0.0.0/0 -j MASQ ... end of "forward" rules ...

No need for a special rule to allow machines on the 192.168.0.0/24 network to go to 204.50.11.0. Why? It is already covered by the global MASQ rule.

NOTE: Unlike IPFWADM, IPCHIANS has only one way of coding the interfaces name. IPCHAINS uses the "-i eth0" option where as IPFWADM had both "-W" for the interface name and "-V" for the interface's IP address.

6.4.3. Stronger IP Firewall (IPFWADM) Rulesets

This section provides a more in-depth guide on using the 2.0.x firewall tool, IPFWADM. See below for IPCHAINS rulesets

This example is for a firewall/masquerade system behind a PPP link with a static PPP address (dynamic PPP instructions are included but disabled). The trusted interface is 192.168.0.1 and the PPP interface IP address has been changed to protect the guilty :). I have listed each incoming and outgoing interface individually to catch IP spoofing as well as stuffed routing and/or masquerading. Anything not explicitly allowed is FORBIDDEN (well.. rejected, actually). If your IP MASQ box breaks after implementing this rc.firewall-ipfwadm-stronger script, be sure that you edit it for your configuration and check your /var/log/messages or /var/adm/messages SYSLOG file for any firewall errors.

For more comprehensive examples of a strong IP Masqueraded IPFWADM rulesets for PPP, Cablemodem users, etc., please see TrinityOS - Section 10 and GreatCircle's Firewall WWW page

NOTE #2: If you get a dynamically assigned TCP/IP address from your ISP (PPP, DSL, Cablemodems, etc.), you CANNOT load this strong ruleset upon booting. You will either need to reload this firewall ruleset EVERY TIME you get a new IP address or make your /etc/rc.d/rc.firewall-ipchains-stronger ruleset more intelligent. To do this for various types of connections such as PPP or DHCP users, please see the Section 7.8 FAQ entry for all the details.

Please also be aware that there are several GUI Firewall creation tools available as well. Please see Chapter 7for full details.

Lastly, if you are using a STATIC PPP IP address, change the "ppp_ip="your.static.PPP.address"" line to reflect your address.

----------------------------------------------------------------

<rc.firewall-ipfwadm-stronger START>

#!/bin/sh
#
# /etc/rc.d/rc.firewall-ipfwadm-stronger: An example of a semi-STRONG 
#                                         IPFWADM firewall ruleset for 2.0 kernels
#
FWVER=0.74s
#
# Log:
#  0.74s - Updated the commands for dynamically addresses machines and
#           to point to an expanded FAQ section for more information
#
#  0.73s - renamed from rc.firewall-2.0-stronger to
#          rc.firewall-ipfwadm-stronger
#
#  0.72s - #ed out the rule that would allow all traffic destined for the
#          MASQ server itself to be accepted.  Use the OPTIONAL INPUT 
#          section to only allow explicit services.


PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin

# testing, wait a bit then clear all firewall rules.
# uncomment the following lines if you want the firewall to automatically
# disable after 10 minutes.
#
# Disabled by default
#
# (sleep 600; \
# ipfwadm -I -f; \
# ipfwadm -I -p accept; \
# ipfwadm -O -f; \
# ipfwadm -O -p accept; \
# ipfwadm -F -f; \
# ipfwadm -F -p accept; \
# ) &


# Load all required IP MASQ modules
#
#   NOTE:  Only load the IP MASQ modules you need.  All current IP MASQ modules
#          are shown below but are commented from loading.

# Needed to initially load modules
#
/sbin/depmod -a

# Supports the proper masquerading of FTP file transfers using the PORT method
#
/sbin/modprobe ip_masq_ftp

# Supports the masquerading of RealAudio over UDP.  Without this module,
#       RealAudio WILL function but in TCP mode.  This can cause a reduction
#       in sound quality
#
#/sbin/modprobe ip_masq_raudio

# Supports the masquerading of IRC DCC file transfers
#
#/sbin/modprobe ip_masq_irc


# Supports the masquerading of Quake and QuakeWorld by default.  This modules is
#   for multiple users behind the Linux MASQ server.  If you are going to 
#   play Quake I, II, and III, use the second example.
#
#   NOTE:  If you get ERRORs loading the QUAKE module, you are running an old
#   -----  kernel that has bugs in it.  Please upgrade to the newest kernel.
#
#Quake I / QuakeWorld (ports 26000 and 27000)
#/sbin/modprobe ip_masq_quake
#
#Quake I/II/III / QuakeWorld (ports 26000, 27000, 27910, 27960)
#/sbin/modprobe ip_masq_quake 26000,27000,27910,27960


# Supports the masquerading of the CuSeeme video conferencing software
#
#/sbin/modprobe ip_masq_cuseeme

#Supports the masquerading of the VDO-live video conferencing software
#
#/sbin/modprobe ip_masq_vdolive


#CRITICAL:  Enable IP forwarding, since it is disabled by default
#
#           Redhat Users:  you may try changing the options in /etc/sysconfig/network 
#                          from:
#
#                       FORWARD_IPV4=false
#                             to
#                       FORWARD_IPV4=true
#
echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward


#CRITICAL:  Enable automatic IP defragmenting since it is disabled by default 
#           in 2.2.x kernels
#
#           This used to be a compile-time option but the behavior was changed 
#           in 2.2.12
#
echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_always_defrag


# Dynamic IP users:
#
#   If you get your IP address dynamically from SLIP, PPP, or DHCP, enable this 
#   following option.  This allows dynamic-ip address hacking in IP MASQ, 
#   making the life with Diald and similar programs much easier.
#
#echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_dynaddr


# Specify your Static IP address here.  
#
#   If you have a DYNAMIC IP address, you need to make this ruleset understand 
#   your IP address everytime you get a new IP.  To do this, enable the 
#   following one-line script.  (Please note that the different single and 
#   double quote characters MATTER).  
#
#
#   DHCP (Cablemodem and DSL) and PPP users:  
#   ----------------------------------------
#   If you get your TCP/IP address a dynamic IP address **you will need ** to 
#   enable the #ed out command below underneath the PPP section AND replace the word 
#   "ppp0" with the name of your EXTERNAL Internet connection (eth0, eth1, 
#   etc).  
#
#   DHCP and PPP users:  The remote DHCP or PPP server can and will change
#   IP addresses on you over time.  To deal with this, users should configure
#   their DHCP or PPP client to re-run the rc.firewall-* ruleset everytime
#   the IP address is changed.  Please see the "masq-and-dyn-addr" FAQ entry
#   in the IPMASQ howto for full details on how to do this.
#
#
# PPP and DHCP Users: 
# -------------------
# Remove the # on the line below and place a # in front of the line after that.
#
#ppp_ip="`/sbin/ifconfig ppp0 | grep 'inet addr' | awk '{print $2}' | sed -e 's/.*://'`"
#
ppp_ip="your.static.PPP.address"


# MASQ timeouts 
#
#   2 hrs timeout for TCP session timeouts
#  10 sec timeout for traffic after the TCP/IP "FIN" packet is received
#  60 sec timeout for UDP traffic (MASQ'ed ICQ users must enable a 30sec 
#     firewall timeout in ICQ itself) 
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -M -s 7200 10 60


#############################################################################
# Incoming, flush and set default policy of reject. Actually the default policy
# is irrelevant because there is a catch all rule with deny and log.
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -I -f
/sbin/ipfwadm -I -p reject

# local interface, local machines, going anywhere is valid
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -I -a accept -V 192.168.0.1 -S 192.168.0.0/24 -D 0.0.0.0/0

# remote interface, claiming to be local machines, IP spoofing, get lost
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -I -a reject -V $ppp_ip -S 192.168.0.0/24 -D 0.0.0.0/0 -o


# remote interface, any source, going to the MASQ servers IP address is valid
#
#  ENABLE this line if you want ALL Internet traffic to connect to your
#  the various servers running on the MASQ server.  This includes 
#  web servers, ssh servers, dns servers, etc.  
#
#  I DON'T recommend you enable this rule.  Instead, only enable specific
#  access to select server ports under the "OPTIONAL INPUT Section".
#  An example of enabling HTTP (WWW) has been given below:
#
#
#/sbin/ipfwadm -I -a accept -V $ppp_ip -S 0.0.0.0/0 -D $ppp_ip/32


# loopback interface is valid.
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -I -a accept -V 127.0.0.1 -S 0.0.0.0/0 -D 0.0.0.0/0


# catch all rule, all other incoming is denied and logged. pity there is no
# log option on the policy but this does the job instead.
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -I -a reject -S 0.0.0.0/0 -D 0.0.0.0/0 -o


#############################################################################
# Outgoing, flush and set default policy of reject. Actually the default policy
# is irrelevant because there is a catch all rule with deny and log.
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -O -f
/sbin/ipfwadm -O -p reject

# local interface, MASQ server source going to the local net is valid
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -O -a accept -V 192.168.0.1 -S 0.0.0.0/0 -D 192.168.0.0/24

# outgoing to local net on remote interface, stuffed routing, deny
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -O -a reject -V $ppp_ip -S 0.0.0.0/0 -D 192.168.0.0/24 -o

# outgoing from local net on remote interface, stuffed masquerading, deny
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -O -a reject -V $ppp_ip -S 192.168.0.0/24 -D 0.0.0.0/0 -o

# outgoing from local net on remote interface, stuffed masquerading, deny
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -O -a reject -V $ppp_ip -S 0.0.0.0/0 -D 192.168.0.0/24 -o

# anything else outgoing on remote interface is valid
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -O -a accept -V $ppp_ip -S $ppp_ip/32 -D 0.0.0.0/0

# loopback interface is valid.
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -O -a accept -V 127.0.0.1 -S 0.0.0.0/0 -D 0.0.0.0/0

# catch all rule, all other outgoing is denied and logged. pity there is no
# log option on the policy but this does the job instead.
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -O -a reject -S 0.0.0.0/0 -D 0.0.0.0/0 -o


#############################################################################
# Forwarding, flush and set default policy of deny. Actually the default policy
# is irrelevant because there is a catch all rule with deny and log.
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -F -f
/sbin/ipfwadm -F -p reject

# Masquerade from local net on local interface to anywhere.
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -F -a masquerade -W ppp0 -S 192.168.0.0/24 -D 0.0.0.0/0
#
# catch all rule, all other forwarding is denied and logged.  Pity there is no
# log option on the policy but this does the job instead.
#
/sbin/ipfwadm -F -a reject -S 0.0.0.0/0 -D 0.0.0.0/0 -o

#End of file.
<rc.firewall-ipfwadm-stronger STOP>

To automatically start this stronger firewall ruleset at the proper time, please see the end of the Section 3.4.3 section for full details. Please make sure you make the correct "rc.firewall-ipfwadm" to "rc.firewall-ipfwadm-stronger" substitutions!!

With IPFWADM, you can block traffic to a particular site using the -I, -O or -F rules. Remember that the set of rules are scanned top to bottom and "-a" tells IPFWADM to "append" this new rule to the existing set of rules. So with this in mind, any specific restrictions need to come before global rules. For example:

Using -I (input ) rules:

Probably the fastest and most efficient method to block traffic but it only stops the MASQed machines, and NOT the the firewall machine itself. Of course, you might want to allow that combination.

Anyway, to block 204.50.10.13:

In the /etc/rc.d/rc.firewall-ipfwadm-stronger ruleset: ... start of -I rules ... # reject and log local interface, local machines going to 204.50.10.13 # /sbin/ipfwadm -I -a reject -V 192.168.0.1 -S 192.168.0.0/24 -D 204.50.10.13/32 -o # local interface, local machines, going anywhere is valid # /sbin/ipfwadm -I -a accept -V 192.168.0.1 -S 192.168.0.0/24 -D 0.0.0.0/0 ... end of -I rules ...

Using -O (output) rules:

This is the slower method to block traffic because the packets go through masquerading first before they are dropped. Yet, this rule even stops the firewall machine from accessing the forbidden site.

... start of -O rules ... # reject and log outgoing to 204.50.10.13 # /sbin/ipfwadm -O -a reject -V $ppp_ip -S $ppp_ip/32 -D 204.50.10.13/32 -o # anything else outgoing on remote interface is valid # /sbin/ipfwadm -O -a accept -V $ppp_ip -S $ppp_ip/32 -D 0.0.0.0/0 ... end of -O rules ...

Using -F (forward) rules:

Probably slower than -I (input) rules for blocking traffic, this still only stops masqueraded machines (e.g. internal machines). The firewall machine can still reach forbidden site(s).

... start of -F rules ... # Reject and log from local net on PPP interface to 204.50.10.13. # /sbin/ipfwadm -F -a reject -W ppp0 -S 192.168.0.0/24 -D 204.50.10.13/32 -o # Masquerade from local net on local interface to anywhere. # /sbin/ipfwadm -F -a masquerade -W ppp0 -S 192.168.0.0/24 -D 0.0.0.0/0 ... end of -F rules ...

There is no need for a special rule to allow machines on the 192.168.0.0/24 network to go to 204.50.11.0. Why? It is already covered by the global MASQ rule.

NOTE: There is more than one way of coding the interfaces in the above rules. For example instead of "-V 192.168.255.1" you can code "-W eth0", instead of "-V $ppp_ip" , you can use "-W ppp0". The "-V" method was phased out with the imgration to IPCHAINS, but for IPFWADM users, its more of a personal choice and documentation.

    
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